INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
ICT stands for "Information and Communication Technologies" and are defined, for the purposes, as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.” ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. These technologies include computers, the Internet, broad casting technologies (radio and television), and telephony.
In the past few decades, information and communication technologies have provided society a vast array of new communication capabilities. For example, people can communicate in real-time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP (VoIP), and video-conferencing. Social networking websites like Facebook allow users from all over the world to remain in contact and communicate on a regular basis.
Modern information and communication technologies have created a "global village," in which people can communicate with others across the world as if they were living next door. For this reason, ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technologies affect society.
What Is the Meaning of Information Communication Technology?
Information and communication technology today usually means computer-based management of data or ideas. In a broader sense, communication and information technologies are the foothold on which humankind distinguished itself from other animals.
The vast difference between today's information and communications technologies and humankind's first simple shared concepts hints at what these technologies now mean for our world. For you, the explosion of information and technologies exposes a wealth of new opportunities to explore.
- Humans' first efforts at communication grew from the pointing and pantomiming our ancestors developed. In "History of Communication," Michael Tomasello suggests that those primitive communication technologies provided the basis for cooperation among early humans. Eons passed before communications technologies began to develop at the rapid pace we see today. The early printing press held a dominant position for about 400 years, until electronic communication began transmitting information at a faster pace.
Electronic communication by way of telegraph, radio and television dominated these technologies for nearly a century. Then along came the boundless world of digital information and communication technology. Our world would never be the same again.
o Although modern information and communication technology drives a competitive marketplace, it still provides our best basis for cooperation, much as it did when our ancestors first shared common understandings for familiar sounds. Today, we cooperate to exchange far more than words. From the discovery of unseen minerals deep in the ground to the safe transit of aircraft overhead, information and communication technologies drive modern culture. High above the atmosphere, satellites gather even more information, and facilitate communication in the world below.
- Information and communication technology investments offered one of the most promising remedies for the economic downturn of 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The group recognized expanding broadband networks as essential for business and social development during economic recovery. Members of The World Summit on the Information Society said information and communication technologies offer new opportunities for diplomacy, for social development, and for better public administration through advances in e-government on the Internet.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
"Globalization and technological changes have created a new global economy powered by technology, fueled by information and driven by knowledge." The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications for the nature and purpose of educational institutions. As the access to information continues to grow rapidly, schools cannot be contented with the limited knowledge to be transmitted in a fixed period of time. They have to become compatible to the ever expanding knowledge and also be equipped with the technology to deal with this knowledge. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) — which include radio and television, as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and the Internet — have been proven as potentially powerful tools for educational change and reform. When used appropriately, different ICTs can help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by helping make teaching and learning into an active process connected to real life.
"ICT is that technology which uses the information to meet human need or purposes including processing and exchanging." "Information and communications technology (ICT) in education is the processing of information and its communications facilities and features that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education.". When these technologies are applied n the field of education, it is termed as ICT in education. The term too can be used as the connotation to the term Educational; technology because it also uses any hardware and software approaches that can enhance yield better learning outcomes. In the era of Computer technology the term ICT mainly focuses on the infrastructure, devices and sources of computer technology and thus it is imperative to discuss about the use of ICT in education by focusing mainly on Computer based technology.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ICT IN EDUCATION
ICT in education is any hardware and software technology that contribute in the educational information processing. In the context of present era, ICT mainly comprises of Computer technology with its hardware, like, Personal computer machine, infrastructure required for setting up Internet facility and also software like, CD ROM including various program packages, E-learning strategies etc. ICT in education is any Information Technology that focuses on the acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, transmission or reception of data required for the educational purpose. For example, the information about students' records, their admissions, updates of their auricular and co-curricular activities. ICT in education is any technology that deals with the exchange of information or in other words communication in the teaching learning process. Uses of Electronic learning technology like, Teleconferencing, power point presentations, CD ROM are Communication Technology which is the part of ICT. ICT in education is any educational technology that is applied in the educational process. It encompasses Hardware approach like use of machines and materials, Software approach like use of methodologies and strategies of teaching learning and Systems approach that uses the management technology that deals with the systematic organization of the hardware and the software. Different software packages are used in different department of education; e.g. library software, administration software, software related to managing the entire teaching learning process. ICT in education is the support material in the hands of the human resource involved in the educational process in order to enhance the quality of education. ICT in education comprises of the application of science of On-line, Offline learning with the help of the computer technology.
USES IN EDUCATION
ICT is being utilized in every part of life. Due to the increasing importance of the computer, students-the future citizens cannot afford to keep themselves aloof from this potential medium. In education, use of ICT has become imperative to improve the efficiency and effectiveness at all levels and in both formal and non-formal settings. Education even at school stage has to provide computer instruction. Profound technical knowledge and positive attitude towards this technology are the essential prerequisites for the successful citizens of the coming decades.
It can be used for the following purposes:
• To broadcast material, online facility or CD-ROM can be used as sources of information in different subjects;
• To facilitate communication for pupils with special needs;
• To use electronic toys to develop spatial awareness and psycho-motor control;
• To use the online resource like, email, Chat, discussion forum to support collaborative writing and sharing of information.
• To facilitate video-conferencing or other form of Tele conferencing to involve wide range of students from distant Geographic areas.
• For Blended learning by combining conventional classroom learning with E- learning systems
• To process administrative and assessment data.
• To exchange and share ideas -among teachers for the professional growth.
• To carry out internet-based research to enhance educational process.
ADVANTAGES OF THE USE OF ICT IN EDUCATION:
ICT encompasses all those gadgets that deal with the processing of information for better and effective communication. In education, communication process takes place between teachers, students, management and administrative personnel which requires plenty of data to be stored for retrieval as and when required, to be disseminated or transmitted in the desired format. The hardware and software like OHP, Television, Radio, Computers and related software are used in the educational process. However ICT today is mostly focused on the use of Computer technology for processing the data. In this context, advantages of ICT in education can be listed down as follows:
• Quick access to information: Information can be accessed in seconds by connecting to the internet and surfing through Web pages.
• Easy availability of updated data: Sitting at home or at any comfortable place the desired information can be accessed easily. This helps the students to learn the updated content. Teachers too can keep themselves abreast of the latest teaching learning strategies and related technologies.
• Connecting geographically dispersed regions: With the advancement of ICT, education does not remain restricted within four walls of the educational institutions. Students from different parts of the world can learn together by using online, offline resources. This would result in the enriching learning experience. Such collaborative learning can result in developing...
• Divergent thinking ability in students,
• Global perspectives
• Respect for varied nature of human life and acculturation.
• Facilitation of learning
ICT has contributed in shifting the focus on learning than teaching. ICT helps students to explore knowledge to learn the content through self study. Teacher can help the students by ensuring the right direction towards effective learning. Situational learning, Programmed learning, many Online learning courses are some of the example of self learning strategies that are being utilized with the help of ICT.
• Catering to the Individual differences: ICT can contribute in catering to individual needs of the students as per their capabilities and interest. Crowded class rooms have always been a challenge for the teacher to consider the needs of every student in the class.
• Wider range of communication media: With the advent of ICT, different means of communication are being introduced in the teaching learning process. Offline learning, on line learning, blended learning are some of the resources that can be used in educational institutions. Collaborative learning, individualized learning strategies can enhance the quality of group as well as individual learning with the real society. This can ensure the applicability of knowledge.
• Wider learning opportunities for pupils Application of latest ICT in education has provided many options to the learners to opt for the course of their choices. Many Online courses are available for them to select any as per their aptitude and interest. Students can evaluate their own progress through different quizzes, ready to use online tests. This can ensure fulfillment of the employment required in the job market thus minimizing the problem of unemployment. It can also provide more efficient and effective citizens to the society as per the changing needs.
DISADVANTAGES OF ICT
1. ICT technology has provided access to damaging information through various websites that
host destructive and immoral content.
2. Unemployment - While information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also created job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed.
3. Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal interceptions to email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge.
4. Lack of job security - Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.
5. Dominant culture - While information technology may have made the world a global village, has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one. For example it is now argued that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else.
The Effectiveness of ICTs in Education
ICTs are a potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, both formal and non-for mal, to previously underserved constituencies—scattered and rural populations, groups traditionally excluded from education due to cultural or social reasons such as ethnic minorities, girls and women, persons with disabilities, and the elderly, as well as all others who for reasons of cost or because of time constraints are unable to enroll on campus.
• Anytime, anywhere. One defining feature of ICTs is their ability to transcend time and space. ICTs make possible asynchronous learning, or learning characterized by a time lag between the delivery of instruction and its reception by learners. Online course materials, for example, may be accessed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ICT-based educational delivery (e.g., educational programming broadcast over radio or television) also dispenses with the need for all learners and the instructor to be in one physical location. Additionally, certain types of ICTs, such as teleconferencing technologies, enable instruction to be received simultaneously by multiple, geographically dispersed learners (i.e., synchronous learning).
• Access to remote learning resources. Teachers and learners no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other materials in physical media housed in libraries (and available in limited quantities) for their educational needs. With the Internet and the World Wide Web, a wealth of learning materials in almost every subject and in a variety of media can now be accessed from anywhere at anytime of the day and by an unlimited number of people. This is particularly significant for many schools in developing countries, and even some in developed countries, that have limited and outdated library resources. ICTs also facilitate access to resource persons, mentors, experts, researchers, professionals, business leaders, and peers—all over the world.
- ICTs help prepare individuals for the workplace.
Benefits/Advantages of ICT in Education
Here are some of the benefits which ICT brings to education according to recent research findings.
- Greater efficiency throughout the school.
- Communication channels are increased through email, discussion groups and chat rooms
- Regular use of ICT across different curriculum subjects can have a beneficial motivational influence on students’ learning.
- Benefits for teachers
- ICT facilitates sharing of resources, expertise and advice
- Greater flexibility in when and where tasks are carried out
- Gains in ICT literacy skills, confidence and enthusiasm.
- Easier planning and preparation of lessons and designing materials
- Access to up-to-date pupil and school data, any time and anywhere.
- Enhancement of professional image projected to colleagues.
- Students are generally more ‘on task’ and express more positive feelings when they use computers than when they are given other tasks to do.
- Computer use during lessons motivated students to continue using learning outside school hours.
- Higher quality lessons through greater collaboration between teachers in planning and More focused teaching, tailored to students’ strengths and weaknesses, through better analysis of attainment data
- Improved pastoral care and behaviour management through better tracking of students
- Gains in understanding and analytical skills, including improvements in reading
- Development of writing skills (including spelling, grammar, punctuation, editing and re-drafting), also fluency, originality and elaboration.
- Encouragement of independent and active learning, and self-responsibility for learning.
- Flexibility of ‘anytime, anywhere’ access (Jacobsen and Kremer, 2000)
- Development of higher level learning styles.
- Students who used educational technology in school felt more successful in school, were more motivated to learn and have increased self-confidence and self-esteem
- Students found learning in a technology-enhanced setting more stimulating and student-centered than in a traditional classroom
- Broadband technology supports the reliable and uninterrupted downloading of web-hosted educational multimedia resources
- Opportunities to address their work to an external audience
- Opportunities to collaborate on assignments with people outside or inside school
Recent research also points to ICT as a significant contributory factor in the raising of standards of achievement in schools.
- Schools judged by the school inspectors to have very good ICT resources achieved better results than schools with poor ICT.
- Schools that made good use of ICT within a subject tended to have better achievement in that subject than other schools.
- Socio-economic circumstances and prior performance of pupils were not found to be critical.
- Secondary schools with very good ICT resources achieved, on average, better results in English, Mathematics and Science than those with poor ICT resources.
literacy, numeracy and science.
- Improved writing skills: grammar, presentation, spelling, word recognition and volume of work.
- Age-gains in mental calculations and enhanced number skills, for example the use of decimals.
- Better data handling skills and increased ability to read, interpret and sketch graphs Improvements in conceptual understanding of Mathematics (particularly problem solving) and Science (particularly through use of simulations)
ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways: by increasing learner motivation and engagement by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, and by enhancing teacher training. ICTs are also transformational tools which, when used appropriately, can promote the shift to a learner-centered environment.
- Motivating to learn. ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound, and colorful, moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process. Interactive radio likewise makes use of sound effects, songs, dramatizations, comic skits, and other performance conventions to compel the students to listen and become involved in the lessons being delivered. More so than any other type of ICT, networked computers with Internet connectivity can increase learner motivation as it combines the media richness and interactivity of other ICTs with the opportunity to connect with real people and to participate in real world events.
- Facilitating the acquisition of basic skills. The transmission of basic skills and concepts that are the foundation of higher order thinking skills and creativity can be facilitated by ICTs through drill and practice. Many educational television programs use repetition and reinforcement to teach the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes and other basic concepts. Most of the early uses of computers were for computer-based learning (also called computer-assisted instruction) that focused on mastery of skills and content through repetition and reinforcement.
- Enhancing teacher training. ICTs have also been used to improve access to and the quality of teacher training. For example, At Indira Gandhi National Open University, satellite-based one-way video- and two-way audio-conferencing was held in 1996, supplemented by print-materials and recorded video, to train 910 primary school teachers and facilitators from 20 district training institutes in Karnataka State. The teachers interacted with remote lecturers by telephone and fax.
There are three general approaches to the instructional use of computers and the Internet, namely:
1) Learning about computers and the Internet, in which technological literacy is the end goal;
2) Learning with computers and the Internet, in which the technology facilitates learning across the curriculum; and
3) Learning through computers and the Internet, integrating technological skills development with curriculum applications.
Learn about computers and the Internet
Learning about computers and the Internet focuses on developing technological literacy. It typically includes:
• Fundamentals: basic terms, concepts and operations
• Use of the keyboard and mouse
• Use of productivity tools such as word processing, spreadsheets, data base and graphics programs
• Use of research and collaboration tools such as search engines and email
• Basic skills in using programming and authoring applications such as Logo or HyperStudio
• Developing an awareness of the social impact of technological change.
Learning with computers and the Internet
Learning with the technology means focusing on how the technology can be the means to learning ends across the curriculum. It includes:
•Presentation, demonstration, and the manipulation of data using productivity tools
•Use of curriculum-specific applications types such as educational games, drill and practice, simulations, tutorials, virtual laboratories, visualizations and graphical representations of abstract concepts, musical composition, and expert systems
•Use of information and resources on CD-ROM or online such as encyclopedia, interactive mapsand atlases, electronic journals and other references.
Technological literacy is required for learning with technologies to be possible, implying a two-step process in which students learn about the technologies before they can actually use them to learn.
Learning through computers and the Internet mean
Learning through computers and the Internet combines learning about them with learning with them. It involves learning the technological skills “just-in-time” or when the learner needs to learn them as he or she engages in a curriculum-related activity.
Computers and the Internet used in distance education
Many higher educational institutions offering distance education courses have started to leverage the Internet to improve their program’s reach and quality.
Disadvantages of ICT
One of the major barriers for the cause of ICT not reaching its full potential in the foundation stage is teacher’s attitude. Some see it as a potential tool to aid learning whereas others seem to disagree with the use of technology in early year settings. Other early year’s educators who are opposed to offering ICT experiences within the educational settings take a less extreme view than this and suggest that ICT is fine, but there are other more vital experiences that young children will benefit from. In theory some people may have the opinion that the teachers who had not experienced ICT throughout their learning tend to have a negative attitude towards it, as they may lack the training in that area of the curriculum.
Another important drawback to using ICT in schools is the fact that computers are expensive. In most schools ICT will be the single largest curriculum budget cost. This may be seen as a good thing but on the other hand there will be little money left over for other significant costs.
Educational informatics is a relatively new area of research, representing the convergence of aspects of information science, computing, education, instructional systems technology, and learning sciences and building on, integrating, and extending these areas of endeavor. Its development represents a response to the question: How can we bring together educational computing and information science to better harness the increasing wealth of resources accessible via the Internet for the purposes of learning? Learning may be formal, entailing teacher-led activities that take place in educational institutions such as schools and universities. However, it may also take the form of self-directed lifelong learning. The former emphasizes “mediation” -used here to refer to intervention on the part of teachers and learning designers in the learning process, typically to select and present information to learners. The latter entails autonomous information seeking on the part of the learner. These two strands may, of course, blend and intersect to a degree, in that aspects of autonomy and self-direction are increasingly incorporated into formal education, for example in the move toward inquiry-based learning, and lifelong autonomous learners may at any stage opt to par- take in mediated learning activity. Developments in educational computing have attempted to bring increasing levels of individualization to learning by making use of pedagogical1 knowledge to enable systems to select and present information in response to the needs and preferences of individual learners. Typically, such systems have been characterized by relatively sophisticated pedagogical mediation and relatively small volumes of closed corpus information-relative, that is, to systems developed within information science. Conversely, information science has been particularly concerned with the development of systems that access relatively large volumes of diverse information sources without attempting to pro- vide a high level of pedagogical mediation. By combining key aspects of both of these fields of endeavor, educational informatics seeks to:
(a) Furnish information seeking tools with the capacity to offer a degree of pedagogical mediation (i.e., make use of some representation of pedagogical knowledge) designed to help autonomous learners access large volumes of diverse information sources more effectively in terms of their learning
(b) Furnish highly pedagogically mediated, computer- assisted learning systems with the capacity to find, access, and make use of large volumes of diverse information sources for learning purposes Educational informatics systems may be useful to both teachers and learners. Clearly, teachers may benefit from any enhanced capability to discover potentially useful learning resources available, for example, over the Internet. However, learners engaged in relatively autonomous information seeking-whether in the context of formal education or of self-directed lifelong learning-may benefit from the availability of pedagogical assistance in the discovery of appropriate information sources.
NETWORKING OF COMPUTERS In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software. Networks can be categorized in several different ways. One approach defines the type of network according to the geographic area it spans. Local area networks (LANs), for example, typically span a single home, school, or small office building, whereas wide area networks (WANs), reach across cities, states, or even across the world. The Internet is the world's largest public WAN.
Network Design Computer networks also differ in their design. The two basic forms of network design are called client/server and peer-to-peer. Client-server networks feature centralized server computers that store email, Web pages, files and or applications. On a peer-to-peer network, conversely, all computers tend to support the same functions. Client-server networks are much more common in business and peer-to-peer networks much more common in homes. A network topology represents its layout or structure from the point of view of data flow. In so-called bus networks, for example, all of the computers share and communicate across one common conduit, whereas in a star network, all data flows through one centralized device. Common types of network topologies include bus, star, ring networks and mesh networks.
Communication languages used by computer devices are called network protocol. Yet another way to classify computer networks is by the set of protocols they support. Networks often implement multiple protocols with each supporting specific applications. Popular protocols include TCP/IP, the most common protocol found on the Internet and in home networks.
While other types of networks are built and maintained by engineers, home networks belong to ordinary homeowners, people often with little or no technical background. Various manufacturers produce broadband router hardware designed to simplify home network setup. Home broadband routers allow devices in different rooms to efficiently share a broadband Internet connection, enable people to more easily share their files and printers within the network, and help with overall network security.
Home networks have increased in capability with each generation of new technology. Years ago, people commonly set up their home network just to connect a few PCs, share some documents and perhaps a printer. Now its common for households to also network game consoles, digital video recorders, and smart phones for streaming sound and video. Home automation systems have also existed for many years, but these too have grown in popularity more recently with practical systems for controlling lights, digital thermostats and appliances.
Small and home office (SOHO) environments use similar technology as found in home networks. Businesses often have additional communication, data storage, and security requirements that require expanding their networks in different ways, particularly as the business gets larger. Whereas a home network generally functions as one LAN, a business network tends to contain multiple LANs. Companies with buildings in multiple locations utilize wide-area networking to connect these branch offices together. Though also available and used by some households, voice over IP communication and network storage and backup technologies are prevalent in businesses. Larger companies also maintain their own internal Web sites, called intranets to help with employee business communication.
Networking and the Internet
The popularity of computer networks sharply increased with the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW) in the 1990s. Public Web sites, peer to peer (P2P) file sharing systems, and various other services run on Internet servers across the world.
Wired vs. Wireless Networking
Many of the same network protocols, like TCP/IP, work in both wired and wireless networks. Networks with Ethernet cables predominated in businesses, schools, and homes for several decades. More recently, however, wireless alternatives have emerged as the premier technology for building new computer networks.
LAN and WAN
LAN (Local Area Network) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, schools, or group of buildings.
WAN (Wide Area Network) is a computer network that covers a broad area (e.g., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries over a long distance
Data transfer rates:
LANs have a high data transfer rate
WANs have a lower data transfer rate as compared to LANs
Network in an organization can be a LAN
Internet is a good example of a WAN
LAN-Tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token Ring
WANs tend to use technology like MPLS, ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the longer distances
LAN-one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves
WAN-Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites
LAN-Layer 2 devices like switches, bridges. layer1 devices like hubs , repeaters
WAN-Layers 3 devices Routers, Multi-layer Switches and Technology specific devices like ATM or Frame-relay Switches etc.
LANs tend to have fewer problems associated with them, as there are a smaller amount of systems to deal with.
WANs tend to be fewer faults tolerant. As it consists of a large amount of systems there is a lower amount of fault tolerance.
Data Transmission Error:
LAN-Experiences fewer data transmission errors
WAN-Experiences more data transmission errors as compared to LAN
LAN-Typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization
WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management over long distances
LAN-If there is a need to set-up a couple of extra devices on the network, it is not very expensive to do that
WAN-In this case since networks in remote areas have to be connected hence the set-up costs are higher. However WANs using public networks can be setup very cheaply, just software (VPN etc)
LAN-Have a small geographical range and do not need any leased telecommunication lines
WAN-Have a large geographical range generally spreading across boundaries and need leased telecommunication lines
Because it covers a relatively small geographical area, LAN is easier to maintain at relatively low costs.
Maintaining WAN is difficult because of its wider geographical coverage and higher maintenance costs.
LAN-High bandwidth is available for transmission.
WAN-Low bandwidth is available for transmission
Lan covers 100 m
Wan covers more than 100 m
Believe it or not, the Internet was created way back in 1969, during the Cold War, by the United States military. It was meant to be a "nuke-proof" communications network. Today, the Internet spreads across the globe and consists of countless networks and computers, allowing millions of people to share information. Data that travels long distances on the Internet is transferred on huge lines known collectively as the Internet backbone. The Internet is now maintained by the major Internet service providers such as MCI Worldcom, Sprint, GTE, ANS, and UUNET. Because these providers make huge amounts of revenue off the Internet, they are motivated to maintain consistent and fast connections which benefits everyday Internet users like you and me.
Many people think the Internet and the World Wide Web are the same thing. They're not! The World Wide Web is what you are browsing right now. It is one of the many features of the Internet. E-mail, FTP, and Instant Messaging are also features of the Internet.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet In the history of mankind, the Internet is the greatest development in the domain of communication industry. Similar to each and every invention, the Internet carries a number of advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, the advantages of the Internet are so huge in number that they outperform the disadvantages quite easily.
What is Internet?
According to the definition provided by Oxford dictionary, the Internet is an arrangement of connected computers, which lets the computer users all over the globe exchange data. At the present time, approximately 33% of the world population has accessibility to the Internet. The Internet is an extraordinary entertainment and learning tool that may be utilized in a number of modes to increase the ability of a user to collect information. The principal components of the Internet are the World Wide Web (WWW) and e-mail. With the passage of time, the Internet has become the most effective business tool in the contemporary world. It can be described as a global meeting place where people from every corner of the world can come simultaneously.
The advantages of Internet
Following are the advantages provided by the Internet:
1) Information The biggest benefit offered by the Internet is information. It functions as a valuable resource of information. You can find any type of information on any subject with the help of the search engines like Yahoo and Google.
2) Communication The primary goal of the Internet is communication. It has done extremely well in this field, however the development process is still going on to make it more dependable and quick. By sending an e-mail, we can contact a person who is physically present thousand miles away within the fraction of a second’s time.
3) Entertainment Internet functions as a popular medium of entertainment. A wide variety of entertainment including video games, music, movies, chat room, news and others can be accessed through the Internet.
4) E-commerce is the idea that is implemented for any form of commercial strategy or business transactions that entails transmission of data from one corner of the world to another. E-commerce has become a fantastic option through which you can shop anything.
5) Formation of communities Internet helps in formation of communities or forums. Here a number of people can participate in different types of debates and discussions express their views and gather valuable knowledge.
6) Services A variety of services are offered via Internet, for example job searching, online banking, buying movie tickets, hotel reservations and consultation services etc. When you avail these services offline, they become more expensive.
The disadvantages of Internet
Following are the disadvantages of Internet:
1) Spamming: Spamming denotes distribution of unsolicited e-mails in large numbers. They are meaningless and they unnecessarily block the whole system. These activities are treated as illegal.
2) Theft of personal details while using the Internet, there is high probability that your personal details like name, address and credit card number may be accessed by con artists and used for fraudulent purposes.
3) Pornography: Pornography is definitely harmful for your children. There are numerous pornographic sites available over the Internet and watching any of those can have very bad influence on the mental health of your children.
4) Virus threat Virus is a program that interrupts the usual operation of your personal computer system. PCs linked to the Internet have high probability of virus attacks and as a result of this your hard disk can crash, giving you a lot of trouble.
Uses of Internet Internet has been the most useful technology of the modern times which helps us not only in our daily lives, but also our personal and professional lives developments. The internet helps us achieve this in several different ways.
For the students and educational purposes the internet is widely used to gather information so as to do the research or add to the knowledge of any sort of subject they have. Even the business personals and the professions like doctors, access the internet to filter the necessary information for their use. The internet is therefore the largest encyclopedia for everyone, in all age categories.
The internet has served to be more useful in maintaining contacts with friends and relatives who live abroad permanently. The easiest communication means like the internet chatting systems and the emails are the best and the most common for the maintaining contacts with the people around the world.
Not to forget internet is useful in providing with most of the fun these days. May it be all the games, and networking conferences or the online movies, songs, dramas and quizzes, internet has provided the users with a great opportunity to eradicate the boredom from their lives.
Internet is also used to upgrade the internet and use special software to work on the projects and documentation works as the internet enables the user to download a myriad of different software for a variety of different purposes, making it much easier than buying the costly software CDs.
Who was the first to use the Internet? Charley Kline at UCLA sent the first packets on ARPANet as he tried to connect to Stanford Research Institute on Oct 29, 1969. The system crashed as he reached the G in LOGIN!
The Internet was designed to provide a communications network that would work even if some of the major sites were down. If the most direct route was not available, routers would direct traffic around the network via alternate routes.
The early Internet was used by computer experts, engineers, scientists, and librarians. There was nothing friendly about it. There were no home or office personal computers in those days, and anyone who used it, whether a computer professional or an engineer or scientist or librarian, had to learn to use a very complex system.
World Wide Web
Internet and Web Information Systems (WWW) is an international, archival, peer-reviewed journal that covers all aspects of the Web, including issues related to architectures, applications, Internet and Web information systems, and communities. It provides in-depth coverage of the most recent developments in the Web, enabling readers to keep up-to-date with this dynamically changing technology. The journal also focuses on all database- and information-system topics that relate to the Internet and the Web, particularly on ways to model, design, develop, integrate, and manage these systems.
Appearing quarterly, the journal publishes papers describing original ideas and new results, vision papers, reviews of important techniques in related areas, innovative application papers, and progress reports on major research projects. It offers the ideal forum for researchers, professionals, and industrial practitioners to share their rapidly developing knowledge and report on new advances.